author = "Santini, Marcelo Freitas and Souza, Ronald Buss de and Wainer, 
                         Ilana and Muelbert, Monica and Hindell, Mark",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Sea ice formation rate and temporal variation of temperature and 
                         salinity at the vicinity of Wilkins ice shelf from data collected 
                         by southern elephant seals in 2008",
            booktitle = "Abstracts...",
                 year = "2013",
         organization = "AGU Meeting of the Americas.",
             keywords = "sea ice formation, temperature, salinity.",
             abstract = "The use of marine mammals as autonomous platforms for collecting 
                         oceanographic data has revolutionized the understanding of 
                         physical properties of low or non-sampled regions of the polar 
                         oceans. The use of these animals became possible due to 
                         advancements in the development of electronic devices, sensors and 
                         batteries carried by them. Oceanographic data collected by two 
                         southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) during the Fall of 2008 
                         were used to infer the sea-ice formation rate in the region 
                         adjacent to the Wilkins Ice Shelf, west of the Antarctic Peninsula 
                         at that period. The sea-ice formation rate was estimated from the 
                         salt balance equation for the upper (100 m) ocean at a daily 
                         frequency for the period between 13 February and 20 June 2008. The 
                         oceanographic data collected by the animals were also used to 
                         present the temporal variation of the water temperature and 
                         salinity from surface to 300 m depth in the study area. Sea ice 
                         formation rate ranged between 0,087 m/day in early April and 0,008 
                         m/day in late June. Temperature and salinity ranged from -1.84 oC 
                         to 1.60 oC and 32.85 to 34.85, respectively, for the upper 300 m 
                         of the water column in the analyzed period. The sea-ice formation 
                         rate estimations do not consider water advection, only temporal 
                         changes of the vertical profile of salinity. This may cause 
                         underestimates of the real sea-ice formation rate. The intense 
                         reduction of sea ice rate formation from April to June 2008 may be 
                         related to the intrusion of the Circumpolar Depth Water (CDW) into 
                         the study region. As a consequence of that we believe that this 
                         process can be partly responsible for the disintegration of the 
                         Wilkins Ice Shelf during the winter of 2008. The data presented 
                         here are considered a new frontier in physical and biological 
                         oceanography, providing a new approach for monitoring sea ice 
                         changes and oceanographic conditions in polar oceans. This is 
                         especially valid for regions covered by sea ice where traditional 
                         instruments deployed by research vessels cannot be used.",
  conference-location = "Cancun, Mexico",
      conference-year = "14-17 May, 2013",
                label = "self-archiving-INPE-MCTI-GOV-BR",
           targetfile = "santini_sea.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "2020, Nov. 29"