author = "Echer, Ezequiel and Tsurutani, Bruce T. and Guarnieri, Fernando 
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Jet 
                         Propulsion Laboratory} and {Universidade do Vale do Paraiba 
                title = "Interplanetary origins of November 2004 superstorms",
              journal = "Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics",
                 year = "2010",
               volume = "72",
               number = "4",
                pages = "280--284",
                month = "Mar.",
             keywords = "Superstorms, Magnetosphere, Solar wind, Space weather.",
             abstract = "The sun was very active in the declining phase of solar cycle 23. 
                         Large sunspot active regions gave origin to multiple flare and 
                         coronal mass ejection (CME) activity in the interval 20032005. On 
                         November 2004, the active region AR 10696 was the origin of dozens 
                         of flares and many CMEs. Some events of this solar activity region 
                         resulted in two large geomagnetic storms, or superstorms 
                         (Dst\−250 nT) on November 8, peak Dst=\−373 nT, and 
                         on November 10, peak Dst=\−289 nT. It is the purpose of 
                         this article to identify the interplanetary origins of these two 
                         superstorms. The southward-directed interplanetary magnetic fields 
                         (IMF Bs) that caused the two superstorms were related to a 
                         magnetic cloud (MC) field for the first superstorm, and a 
                         combination of sheath and MC fields for the second superstorm. 
                         However, this simple, classic picture is complicated by the 
                         presence of multiple shocks and waves. Six fast-forward shocks 
                         and, at least, two reverse waves were observed in the period of 
                         the two superstorms. A detailed analysis of these complex 
                         interplanetary features is performed in this work.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.jastp.2009.02.009",
                  url = "",
                 issn = "1364-6826",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "Interplanetary origins.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "2021, July 25"