%0 Journal Article
%@issn 1364-6826
%T Interplanetary origins of November 2004 superstorms
%D 2010
%8 Mar.
%A Echer, Ezequiel,
%A Tsurutani, Bruce T.,
%A Guarnieri, Fernando L.,
%@affiliation Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)
%@affiliation Jet Propulsion Laboratory
%@affiliation Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP)
%B Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics
%V 72
%N 4
%P 280-284
%K Superstorms, Magnetosphere, Solar wind, Space weather.
%X The sun was very active in the declining phase of solar cycle 23. Large sunspot active regions gave origin to multiple flare and coronal mass ejection (CME) activity in the interval 20032005. On November 2004, the active region AR 10696 was the origin of dozens of flares and many CMEs. Some events of this solar activity region resulted in two large geomagnetic storms, or superstorms (Dst−250 nT) on November 8, peak Dst=−373 nT, and on November 10, peak Dst=−289 nT. It is the purpose of this article to identify the interplanetary origins of these two superstorms. The southward-directed interplanetary magnetic fields (IMF Bs) that caused the two superstorms were related to a magnetic cloud (MC) field for the first superstorm, and a combination of sheath and MC fields for the second superstorm. However, this simple, classic picture is complicated by the presence of multiple shocks and waves. Six fast-forward shocks and, at least, two reverse waves were observed in the period of the two superstorms. A detailed analysis of these complex interplanetary features is performed in this work.
%@language en
%3 Interplanetary origins.pdf